What is travel behavior? The field of travel behavior is the study of the various actions related to transportation, including but not limited to the choices related to how, when, where, and with whom we travel; the motivations behind these actions; and their consequences. Recognizing that most of our travel is activated by the need to engage in activities that occur in various locations, the field includes the examination of how we spend our time and the things that we do. Also included are our decisions about where to live and where to work, since these locations become important spatial and temporal anchors for our daily travel.

The work presented here is as broad as this description, but includes some themes: a) links between the built environment and travel choices, b) planning for non-motorized modes, and c) modeling applications.

Projects

Incorporate Emerging Travel Modes in the Regional Strategic Planning Model (RSPM) Tool – PI Wang (NITC/ODOT/Summit Foundation)

Developing Data, Models, and Tools to Enhance Transportation Equity – PI Lubitow (NITC)

The Contribution of Transportation and Land Use to Citizen Perceptions of Livability in Oregon MPOs – PI Lewis (NITC)

Understanding Market Segments for Current and Future Residential Location and Travel Choices (NITC/ODOT)

Lessons from the Green Lanes: Evaluating Protected Bike Lanes in the U.S. – PI Monsere (NITC/People for Bikes)

Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan Update Quantitative Case Studies (ODOT)

Examining Consumer Behavior and Travel Choices (OTREC/PDC)

Development of a Statewide Sketch Level Transportation Demand Model for Maryland (MDOT)

Publications

Felix, R; Moura, F.; and Clifton, K. “Typologies of Urban Cyclists: A Review of Market Segmentation Methods for Planning Practice”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., forthcoming.

Exploring the Positive Utility of Travel and Mode Choice, (PhD dissertation by Patrick Singleton, Portland State University, 2017)

Clifton, KJ and Moura, F. “Conceptual Framework for Understanding Latent Demand: Accounting for Unrealized Activities and Travel”, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2668, 2017, pp: 78-83. https://doi.org/10.3141/2668-08

S.R. Gehrke, & K.J. Clifton. “A pathway linking smart growth neighborhoods to household-level pedestrian travel”, Travel Behaviour and Society, 2017(7): 52–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2017.02.003

S.R. Gehrke, & K.J. Clifton. An activity-related land use mix construct and its connection to pedestrian travel. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science. First published date: January-27-2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2399808317690157.

Clifton, K. J., Singleton, P. A., Muhs, C. D., & Schneider, R. J. 2016. “Development of destination choice models for pedestrian travel”, Transportation Research Part A, 94: 255-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2016.09.017

Clifton, K. J., Singleton, P. A., Muhs, C. D., & Schneider, R. J. “Representing pedestrian activity in travel demand models: Framework and applications”, Journal of Transport Geography, 2016, Vol. 52:111-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.03.009

Muhs, C & Clifton, KJ. “Do Characteristics of Walkable Environments Support Bicycling? Towards a Definition of Bicycle-supported Development,” Journal of Transport & Land Use, 2016, 9(2): 147-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2015.727

Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. “Toward a spatial-temporal measure of land-use mix.” Journal of Transport & Land Use, 2016, 9(1):171-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2015.725

Clifton, Kelly, Muhs, Christopher; Morrissey, Tomás, & Currans, Kristina. “Consumer behavior and travel mode: An exploration of restaurant, drinking establishments and convenience store patrons,” International Journal of Sustainable Transport, 2016, 10(3):260-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2014.897404

Foster, N; Monsere, C; Dill, J; and Clifton, K. “Level-of-Service model for protected bike lanes,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Jan 2015, Vol. 2520, pp. 90-99. https://doi.org/10.3141/2520-11

Singleton, P. A., & Clifton, K. J. “Exploring Synergy in Bicycle and Transit Use: Empirical Evidence at Two Scales,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Issue 2417 Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014, pp. 92-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2417-10

Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. “Operationalizing Land Use at Varying Geographic Scales and its Connection to Mode Choice: Evidence from Portland, Oregon,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2453, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2014, pp 128–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2453-16

A Theory of Travel Decision-Making with Applications for Modeling Active Travel Demand (Masters thesis by Patrick Singleton, Portland State University, 2017)

Akar, G; Clifton, KJ & Doherty, ST. “Redefining Activity Types: Who Participates in Which Leisure Activity?” Transportation Research Part A: Policy & Practice, vol. 4 (8), 2012. pp. 1194–1204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2012.05.007

Akar, G; Clifton, KJ & Doherty, ST. “Discretionary Activity Location Choice: In-Home or Out-of-Home?” Transportation, vol. 38, 2011. pp. 101-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11116-010-9293-x

Akar, Gulsah, Clifton, Kelly, & Doherty, Sean. “How Travel Attributes Affect Planning Time Horizon of Activities,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2132, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. pp. 33-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2132-04

Akar, Gulsah & Clifton, Kelly. “The Influence of Individual Perceptions and Bicycle Infrastructure on the Decision to Bike,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2140, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. pp. 165-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2140-18

Targa, Felipe; Clifton, Kelly J. & Mahmassani, Hani S. “Influence of Transportation Access on Individual Firm Location Decisions,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1977, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2006. pp. 179-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1977-23

Clifton, Kelly J. “Independent Mobility Among Teenagers: An Exploration of Travel to After-School Activities,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1854, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2003. pp. 74-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/1854-08

Handy, Susan L. & Clifton, Kelly. “Evaluating Neighborhood Accessibility: Possibilities and Practicalities,” Journal of Transportation & Statistics, 4(2/3), 2002.pp. 67-78.

Handy, Susan L. & Clifton, Kelly. “Local Shopping as a Strategy for Reducing Automobile Travel” Transportation, vol. 28, 2001. pp. 317-346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2005.02.009

Rosenbloom, Sandra & Clifton, Kelly. “The Puzzle of Income, Race, and Density: Preliminary Evidence on Transit Use from the 1991 American Housing Survey,” Journal of Public Transportation, 1(1), 1996. pp. 87-102.