Pedestrian Planning Tools

                         Model of Pedestrian Demand (MoPeD)

Pedestrian behavior research has made important gains as communities are increasingly interested multi-modal planning to create communities that are accessible, safe, livable, environmentally sensitive, healthy and economically vibrant. But the methods to support these efforts are lacking and less sophisticated than those available for motorized modes. To help remedy this issue, our ongoing research agenda aims to advance pedestrian modeling tools and increase the capacity for public agencies, planners and researchers to estimate various aspects of pedestrian demand.


To date, we have completed or are engaged in several research projects to advance pedestrian modeling capacity:



Hannah Twaddell (ICF); Eliot Rose (ICF); Joseph Broach (PSU);Jennifer Dill (PSU); Kelly Clifton (PSU); Claire Lust (PSU);Kimberly Voros (Alta); Hugh Louch (Alta); Erin David (Alta). 2018. Guidebook for measuring multimodal network connectivity. FHWA-HEP-18-032, Federal Highway Administration, US DOT.

Singleton, P; Totten, J; Orrego, J.; Schneider, R; and Clifton, K. “Making Strides: State of the
Practice of Pedestrian Forecasting in Regional Travel Models”, Transportation Research Record:
Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board of the National
Academies, Washington, D.C., 2018.

Singleton, P. A., & Clifton, K. J. Considering health in US metropolitan long-range transportation plans: A review of guidance statements and performance measures. Transport Policy, 57, 2017, 79–89.

Lefebvre-Ropars, G.; Morency, C.; Singleton, P.; and Clifton, K. “Assessing the spatial transferability of a walkability index: the Pedestrian Index of the Environment”, Transportation
Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2017 (57): 378-392.

S.R. Gehrke, & K.J. Clifton. “A pathway linking smart growth neighborhoods to household-level pedestrian travel”, Travel Behaviour and Society, Volume 7, April, 2017, Pages 52–62.

S.R. Gehrke, & K.J. Clifton. (2017). An activity-related land use mix construct and its connection to pedestrian travel. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science. First published date: January-27-2017,

Clifton, K. J., Singleton, P. A., Muhs, C. D., & Schneider, R. J. “Development of destination choice models for pedestrian travel”, Transportation Research Part A, 2016, 94: 255-265.

Blanc, B.; Figliozzi, MA; and Clifton, KJ. “How Representative of Bicycling Populations Are Smartphone Application Surveys of Travel Behavior?” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2587, 2016, pp. 78–89.

Clifton, K. J., Singleton, P. A., Muhs, C. D., & Schneider, R. J. 2016. “Representing pedestrian activity in travel demand models: Framework and applications”, Journal of Transport Geography, 2016, Vol. 52:111-122.

Muhs, C & Clifton, KJ. “Do Characteristics of Walkable Environments Support Bicycling? Towards a Definition of Bicycle-supported Development,” Journal of Transport & Land Use, 2016, 9(2): 147-188.

Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. 2016. “Toward a spatial-temporal measure of land-use mix.” Journal of Transport & Land Use, 9(1):171-186.

Clifton, Kelly, Muhs, Christopher; Morrissey, Tomás, and Currans, Kristina. “Consumer behavior and travel mode: An exploration of restaurant, drinking establishment and convenience store patrons,” International Journal of Sustainable Transport, 2016, 10(3):260-270.

Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. “Operationalizing Land Use at Varying Geographic Scales and its Connection to Mode Choice: Evidence from Portland, Oregon,” Transportation Research Record:
Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2453, 2014, pp 128–136.

McConville, Megan; Rodríguez, Daniel; Clifton, Kelly; Cho, Gihyoug; Fleischhacker, Sheila. “Disaggregate land uses and walking,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 40(1), 2011. pp. 25–32.

Shay, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Cho, Gihyoug; Clifton, Kelly J; and Evenson, Kelly R. “Comparing objective measures of environmental supports for pedestrian travel in adults,” International Journal of Health Geographics, vol. 8:62, 2009.

Rodríguez, DA; Aytur, S; Forsyth, A; Oakes, MJ, and Clifton, KJ. “Relation of modifiable neighborhood attributes to walking,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 47(3), 2008. pp. 260-264.

Clifton, Kelly J., Livi Smith, Andrea D., and Rodriguez, Daniel. “The development and testing of an audit for the pedestrian environment,” Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, 80(1-2), 2007. pp. 95-110.

Targa, Felipe and Clifton, Kelly J. (corresponding author). “The built environment and trip generation for non-motorized travel,” Journal of Transportation and Statistics, vol. 8(3), 2005. pp. 55-70.